See also the platform-specific installation instructions below. Skip to content. Installation. full(10) get. key ( hashable identifier, optional (default=None) ) – Return data only for the edge with specified key. For small graphs, NetworkX is fine, but for moderate sized networks (10,000 nodes or more) you really want to use iGraph. Edge in Python and get to the value of 'label'-attribute of an edge int igraph_add_edge(igraph_t *graph, igraph_integer_t from, igraph_integer_t to); For directed graphs the edge points from from to to . I have been scouring the docs trying to find a function that will return a list vertices from an iGraph graph Every igraph Graph, vertex and edge behaves as a standard Python dictionary in some sense: you can add key-value pairs to any of them, with the key representing the name of your attribute (the only restriction is that it must be a string) and the value representing the attribute itself. Network Analysis ¶. _edgelist) Hashable objects include strings, tuples, integers, and more. Note that if you want to add many edges to a big graph, then it is unefficient to add them one by one, it is better to collect them into a vector and add all of them via a single igraph_add_edges() call. es] [1, 2, 2] The edge sequence can also be used as a dictionary where the keys are the attribute names. linegraph = self. edges(g, E(g)[2]) -- T. What is a graph? • Binary relation (=edges) between elements of a set (=vertices) . The igraphdata package contains graph data sets as igraph objects, the ‘macaque’ name refers to one of them. add_edges can only take a list of edges without attributes, so I've been adding them one by one with . Carlos G. ThisbookdealswiththeAPI,and notwiththeinternalrepresentation. In python, you would simply read in the rows and create an edge list in two for loops. edu. . ipynb a set of R functions (the igraph application programming interface, API), toperformvariousoperationsonthem:calculateproperties,manipulatethe graphstructure,visualizethegraphs,etc. Sign up edge_list = [] for edge in edges: Here’s how iGraph deals with the Lincoln graph. Arguments. igraph is on the Python Package Index so it can be installed using pip or easy_install: $ pip install python-igraph Graph Representation part 01 - Edge List - Duration: 13:45. 4 summary(gmis) set/get. These functions are about as simple as they get. So if you could please send me the patches to include the Graph. May 5, 2019 Having tried out a few (networkx in Python and igraph in R) but on with large networks (millions of vertices and edges) and often wonder what is Here's a list of other comparative benchmarks for the interested viewer to check out: . source code Windows users will find the script inside the scripts subdirectory of Python and you Passing this list to Graph. get. Will most likely be duplicates in the following vertex list, from any connected edges. Previous by thread: [igraph] adding vertices and edges to an empty graph from R Next by thread: [igraph] how to create instance of igraph. Graph[{a,b}, {{1,2}}]. edgelist(graph, names=FALSE)+1 Apr 25, 2016 This notation might seem quite dense at first, but it is easy to get used to Except for very small graphs, this list is truncated, so that it fits to the screen. Graph attributes are associated with graph, vertex attributes with vertices and edge attributes with edges. Pygraphviz is a Python interface to the Graphviz graph layout and visualization package. Dec 7, 2015 As Marbach explains the secret to getting ggplot2 to draw networks is quite get a network analysis package to give you a list of nodes, edges, Jul 19, 2018 Finding the network diameter with shp2graph and igraph (Ontario road data). 原因在于：NetworkX is a pure-python implementation, whereas igraph is implemented in C. First, it is necessary to get John's node using a NodeSelector object and . kateto. Usage. Gábor's online tutorial - This is the tutorial available on the igraph webpage, currently under development. igraph tutorials. # This is the And finally, it's multi-platform – you can also use it in Python if you want, and on The easiest way to create an igraph network is to create an edgelist in a The magic is in making sure you know what these results mean, not in getting the Tag: igraph using the Python-based OSMnx software for every U. es, key = itemgetter(" score "), reverse = True) # From now on, we only need the edge list of the original graph: del linegraph # Set up initial configuration: every edge is a separate cluster: clusters = EdgeClustering(self. Also, I am dealing with hundreds and thousands of nodes. . Several packages offer the same basic level of graph manipulation, notably igraph which also has bindings for R and C++. edges(g, E(g)) get. GitHub Gist: g = Graph(vertex_attrs={"label":vertices}, edges=edges, directed=True) . igraph is a free, open source collection of network analysis tools that can be programmed with R, Python, and C/C++. gmis <- graph. _edgelist) 1. The first edge points from edges[1] to edges[2], the second from edges[3] to edges[4], etc. Note that if the edge list contains vertices with indexes: larger than or equal to M{m}, then the number of vertices will: be adjusted accordingly. 1 (Based on Apple Inc. For multi(di)graphs, the keys are 3-tuples of) igraph how to get edge identifiers along the shortest paths I have a graph with multiple shortest paths and want to retrieve the ids of the vertices and the ids of the edges: igraph_get_all_shortest_paths() computes only the list of the vertices. NetworkX can simply load a graph from a list of edge tuples. At first, nodes and edges stored in Neo4J are loaded to iGraph virtual graph. Its core is a software library written in C/C++, and it has interfaces to GNU R and Python. Every igraph Graph, vertex and edge behaves as a standard Python Dec 14, 2018 Get one more story in your member preview when you sign up. 15. Here is an R version that is much shorter, because we take advantage of the Bioconductor project, which has the data bundled into an R package. Hence to make the graph creation fast I tried following code: python-igraph how to add edges with weight? I have a tuple list like [('1 The last one in the tuple is the weight of edge from '1' to '177'. Since we added element 3 to the list l4 above, elements 1 and 2 will be generated and empty (NULL). @keyword edges: the edge list where every list item is a pair of: integers. If it is, then here is a very dirty way to do that. : g <- graph. The reason is that iGraph is written in C, so it’s orders of magnitudes faster than NetworkX, which is entirely written in native Python (much, much slower). If you iterate the <EdgeSeq> object (graph. one without loops and multiple edges. igraph is the network analysis package with versions for R, Python, and C/C++. Hei, Thanks for your quick answers! Tamas, I would be happy to recompile the igraph source. This function is actually faster than EdgeList, and can be used to implement many edge-list based operations efficiently. Apr 17, 2017 Since this is the first node created, the list of nodes only has one item. In another Python Patterns column, I will try to analyze their running speed and improve their performance, at the cost of more code. components and graph motifs. comb = list(weight = "sum", name = function(x)x[1], "ignore")) Get this blog via email with Blogtrottr Oct 27, 2015 Download · Documentation · Mailing List · Git · Issues NetworkX is a pure- python implementation, whereas igraph is implemented in C. edges, two dashes (C{--}) and the name of the graph (i. es: print e. build 5658) (LLVM build 2335. igraph / python-igraph. For (di)graphs, the keys are; 2-tuples of the form ((u,v). and GISF2E (a Python tool that processes shapefiles into edge lists) [78]. For instance, to find the first edge with weight larger than 5 in graph g : Returns the list of articulation points in the graph. and datatypes, while also being familiar to users of other igraph interfaces (R, Python or C). GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. community_edge_betweenness(directed = True) Network Analysis ¶. igraph is a library collection for creating and manipulating graphs and analyzing networks. (That's one of the reasons why I haven't started implementing this yet - it is more complicated to get it right than it first seems). An optional edge sequence, to query edge attributes for a subset of edges. es), you will go through all <Edge> objects (here edge). The graph internal data structures are based on an adjacency list representation and implemented using Python dictionary datastructures. Since you can create one of two types of graph (directed and undirected), to avoid confusion, it is better to explicitly specify which type you are creating (directed=TRUE or directed = FALSE). E. Welcome to python-igraph’s documentation! View page source; Welcome to python-igraph’s documentation! Python Implementation of Undirected Graphs (Adjacency List and Adjacency Matrix) - graphUndirected. The code below should work for both. R produces different result after IO on file. NetworkX is a Python language software package for the creation, manipulation, and study of the structure, dynamics, and functions of complex networks. A list is formed containing the distinct group of edges found from the vertices. tuple) for e in g. HouseX The same as the house graph with an X in the square. Thus one can get started with very little to no effort. A final version that would be merged into python-igraph would need to handle both directed and undirected graphs as well as graphs with multiple edges. 1 Answer 1. It also depends on whether the first row / col is named. If you find the materials useful, please cite them in your work – this helps me make the case that open publishing of digital materials like this […] Returns the list of all the edge attributes in the graph associated to this edge sequence. R/Igraph Display edge weights in an edge list? 1. It’s a commonly used input format for graphs. The list of included functions can be queried with the command below. It also can be used for Degree-preserving randomization. There are many functions to create different graph structures in Igraph. It accepts an edge id and returns the vertices for that edge. IGraph wins. Of all, I find snap's the most cumbersome since one has to define an Apr 29, 2015 It is based on the adjacency-list representation, but with fast lookup of nodes Package python-igraph 0. igraph is a collection of software packages for graph theory and network analysis. python. This research initially stemmed from a need to ﬁnd shortest paths or . (directed or undirected) edges that. get_edge_similarity_graph() # Sort the scores: sorted_edges = sorted (linegraph. It is a great package but I found the documentation somewhat difficult to use, so hopefully this post can be a helpful introduction to network visualization with R . 10 Using igraph for Visualisations DrJamsheedShorish The Australian National University jamsheed. game(8, 0. edges. Ease of Programming. If you are using Python and igraph, the following line of code works to import weights and vertex names: R igraph iterate through edge list and get attributes. The new edges are given as a vertex sequence, e. These are the very basic functionalities of igraph, described here thoroughly. I have a vertices list as (vertexID) and a edge list as (srcID, dstID). All gists Back to GitHub. directed - whether the graph should be directed; graph_attrs - the attributes of the graph as a dictionary. IGraph: nine algorithms including optimal modularity; edge betweenness etc. int igraphmodule_i_get_string_edge_attr(const igraph_t * graph, An optional edge sequence, to query edge attributes for a subset of edges. closeness method for connected graph is good and right calculate, and for Disconnected graph in not Good! How to get the vertices from an edge using igraph in python? python,igraph,vertex,edges. CREATING GRAPHS. Similarly, edges are also numbered from one, up to the number of edges. Yet, they are nearly optimal (for code written in Python). graph/vertex/edge. Load a graph. Graph Representation part 01 - Edge List - Duration: 13:45. The graph adjaceny structure is implemented as a Python dictionary of dictionaries; the outer dictionary is keyed by nodes to values that are themselves dictionaries keyed by neighboring node to the edge An adjacency list is simply an unordered list that describes connections between vertices. igraph is on the Python Package Index so it can be installed using pip or easy_install: $ pip install python-igraph Import weighted edgelist using igraph. Oct 2, 2014 iGraph Cheat Sheet from trvoldemort. There are three arguments in the graph_from_data_frame() function: d, vertices, and directed. To the contrary, "this NetworkX is a Python package for the creation, manipulation, and study of the structure, dynamics, and functions of complex networks. On Mac OS X, you can get a working C and C++ compiler as well as make by installing XCode or the XCode Command Line Tools. The edges to add, a vertex sequence with even number of vertices. It is written in C and also exists as Python and R packages. Python language data structures for graphs, digraphs, and multigraphs. Finding the graph edges is little tricker than the vertices as we have to find each of the pairs of vertices which have an edge in between them. l3[[1]] <- 11 # add an element to the empty list l3 l4[[3]] <- c(22, 23) # add a vector as element 3 in the empty list l4. Rajarshi Guha wrote a nice Python script that converts the Gene Ontology graph into an igraph graph. An igraph graph can have loops, i. —archived as reusable open-source GraphML files, node/edge lists, and ESRI If you're starting from scratch, you can get started in four simple steps:. To see what I mean, consider the following program: from igraph import Graph g=Graph. source code Calculates the edge connectivity of the graph or between some vertices. neighbors ( v , mode = " all " ) result . So we create an empty list of edges then iterate thorugh the edge values associated with each of the vertices. Converting to set() will have only one member for each vertex. S. Weighted_Ajacency constructor as well as Dijkstra's algorithm for weighted shortest paths in the python interface. You can set up Plotly to work in online or offline mode, or in jupyter notebooks. I want to create a igraph Graph out of these nodes and edges. au 15July2013-BeihangUniversity NetworkX is the most popular Python package for manipulating and analyzing graphs. It can be used as an iterable as well, or even in a list comprehension: >>> g=Graph. In this post, I use the melt() function from the reshape2 package to create an adjacency list from a correlation matrix. renyi. Feb 9, 2013 Let's say you have an edgelist with associated values, like this: need to designate them as characters or else igraph/statnet will get confused. add_edges() adds these two edges to your graph : > The edge is referenced by its index, so if the underlying graph changes, the semantics of the edge object Returns the list of edge attribute names, source code These are the very basic functionalities of igraph, described here thoroughly. Isn't igraph_get_shortest_paths(&g, &vertices, & Create an edge list in Python. A more recent tutorial covering network basics with R and igraph is available here. io Find an R package R language docs Run R in your browser R Notebooks igraph how to get edge identifiers along the shortest paths I have a graph with multiple shortest paths and want to retrieve the ids of the vertices and the ids of the edges: igraph_get_all_shortest_paths() computes only the list of the vertices. The edges will be in the first two columns, named from and to. de, as well as the attribute size to the numeric value of 237445 Hei, Thanks for your quick answers! Tamas, I would be happy to recompile the igraph source. •igraph_layout_bipartite –standard for bipartite graphs •igraph_layout_fruchterman_reingold –FDL, flexible and usually attractive •igraph_layout_kamada_kawai –also FDL, usually faster and messier than FR l3[[1]] <- 11 # add an element to the empty list l3 l4[[3]] <- c(22, 23) # add a vector as element 3 in the empty list l4. 因此，如果是做大型网络的需要注意了，赶紧从NetworkX跳到igraph来，你不会后悔的。 Plotly's Python library is free and open source! Get started by downloading the client and reading the primer. add_edge The house graph is a 5-vertex, 6-edge graph, the schematic draw of a house if drawn properly, basicly a triangle of the top of a square. as_data_frame converts the igraph graph into one or more data frames, depending on the what argument. game(100, directed=FALSE) d <- get. degree ( mode = " all " ) result = [] for v in vs : neis = graph . igraph workshop … The plot has been done entirely in R (2. Having read in our adjacency matrix default (any Python object (default=None)) – Value to return if the edge (u,v) is not found. The ids are OSM Node IDs and they do not start from zero and are not sequential in most cases. num2 <- 0; den <- 0 edges <- get. the contents of the C{name} attribute, if any). attr. I've been looking at the python-igraph tutorial, but I can't find any obvious way of determining if two vertices in an undirected graph are connected, i. e. NetworkX wins. Full(4) # Vertex set is {0. We also have a quick-reference cheatsheet (new!) to help you get started! edges - the edge list where every list item is a pair of integers. shorish@anu. In python-igraph, it seems to me that when you delete vertices from a graph, the vertices are renamed to using consecutive vertices from 0 to n. Passing this list to Graph. 2. net NetSciX 2016 School of Code Workshop, Wroclaw, Poland Contents Get the tutorial PDF and code, or download on GithHub. edge(cg, c(13,15,16)) [1] 4 6 For example you can use the standard R scan() to read an edge list from a file and then graph() to create a graph object from it. igraph vertex ids are natural numbers, starting from one, up to the number of vertices in the graph. Here we select a few representative It is a directed graph, with N=39,796 vertices and E= 301,498 edges. attribute. Figuerola: A walk on Python-igraph i-graph i-graph is a library written in C++ (fast and memory e cient) a tool for programmers it works from programs in R, Python (and C++, btw) a set of R functions (the igraph application programming interface, API), toperformvariousoperationsonthem:calculateproperties,manipulatethe graphstructure,visualizethegraphs,etc. To create an igraph object from an edge-list data frame we can use the graph_from_data_frame() function, which is a bit more straight forward than network(). a matrix can be used to create a graph edgelist <- matrix(c(1:5,2:5,1),ncol=2) edgelist . or defining as set in first place. 00)] on darwin Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. Examples for graph attributes are the date when the graph data was collected or other types of memos like the type of the data, or whether the graph is a simple graph, ie. I am getting a "plot not available error". The edge is referenced by its index, so if the underlying graph changes, the semantics of the edge object might change as well (if the edge indices are altered in the original graph). For example: this sets the attribute university of vertex 0 to the value of uni-dortmund. edgelist(el, dir=FALSE). graph. The individual edges can be accessed by indexing the edge sequence object. High level interfaces from R and Python. for i,e in enumerate(graph. es ), you will go python-igraph example. Usage as_edgelist(graph, names = TRUE) Getting vertex list from python-igraph. <Edge> has properties source and target. I began to have my Graph Theory classes on university, and when it comes to representation, the adjacency matrix and adjacency list are the ones that we need to use for our homework and such. 1. Every igraph Graph, vertex and edge behaves as a standard Python dictionary in some sense: you can add key-value pairs to any of them, with the key representing the name of your attribute (the only restriction is that it must be a string) and the value representing the attribute itself. python-igraph manual. igraph - How to claculate closeness method in iGraph to disconnected graphs Tag: igraph , measure I use igraph in R for calculate graph measure, my graph make in a PIN that not Connected Graph and is Disconnected Graph. If you iterate the <EdgeSeq> object ( graph. Contribute to igraph/python-igraph development by creating an account on GitHub. We can get the starting node for each edge with the ends() igraph function. city and town, county, urbanized area, census tract, and Zillow-defined neighborhood boundary. mycodeschool 283,168 views The header line consists of C{IGRAPH}, followed by a. four-character long code, the number of vertices, the number of. However, if you supply a vector of edge ids, it will not work - it just returns the vertices for only the first edge, as can be seen from the below output: > cg <- erdos. While using summary(net) yields an edge list as part of the summary, it was not clear to me how to get such a list as a manipulable object. g. This is now available in IGraph/M 0. I wrote the statnet_help list and Carter Butts (co-author of network) pointed out to me that getting an edgelist is quite simple. Value The value of the edge attribute, or the list of all edge attributes if name is missing. Some of them you can find below. net NetSciX 2016 School of Code Workshop, Wroclaw, Poland Contents Python Chord Diagram in Python/v3 How to make an interactive chord diagram in Python with Plotly and iGraph. 6) > get. An index-based edge list can be used to reconstruct a graph using the undocumented syntax Graph[vertexList, indexEdgeList], e. Sign in Sign up Details. Sometimes it is useful to work with a standard representation of a graph, like an edge list. 95 as IGEdgeIndexList. Parameters: G (NetworkX Graph) – ; name – Attribute name; Returns: Dictionary of attributes keyed by edge. adjacency returns the adjacency matrix of a graph, a regular R matrix if sparse is FALSE, or a sparse matrix, as defined in the ‘Matrix’ package, if sparse if TRUE. • GNU GPL. 14. communities = g. However, I found that NetworkX had the strongest graph algorithms that I needed to solve the CPP. 0 [16]. For using igraph from Python Home Returns the list of all the edge attributes in the graph associated to this edge sequence. Similarly you can use get. If any of the integers is larger than M{n-1}, the number: of vertices is adjusted accordingly. 01) with the help of the igraph package. 5 vertices and 8 edges. The set() sounds like the way go as you can check intersection between sets of vertices easily. If the what argument is edges (the default), then the edges of the graph and also the edge attributes are returned. The edge list contains numerical node identifiers rather than labels, but you can add the labels later as node attributes. igraph is a code-based function library for visual analytics of data collections and their associated information. mycodeschool 280,160 views Contribute to igraph/python-igraph development by creating an account on GitHub. C{None} means no edges. edgelist = graph. If the name of an igraph object is Library for the analysis of networks. For example, in the following simple undirected graph with three vertices and two edges: List names of edge attributes edge_attr_names: List names of edge attributes in igraph: Network Analysis and Visualization rdrr. library(igraph) par(mfrow=c(1,2)) plot(graph. The attributes of the edge can be accessed by using the edge as a hash: python-igraph manual. Ask Question 4. , Aug 5, 2015 Learning, Data Science, and visualization with R and Python since 2008 A simplified graph contains only a single edge between two nodes. default (any Python object (default=None)) – Value to return if the edge (u,v) is not found. Igraph can read and write Pajek and GraphML files, as well as simple edge lists. tuple (0, 1) (0, 2) (1, 2) >>> [max(e. These are vertex ids, simply integers. It is a little toy only, but can be useful if you want to adjust the layout of small graphs. Note: this page is part of the documentation for version 3 of Plotly. UPDATE: Eryk Kopczyński pointed out that these functions are not optimal. find(edge. es):. Aug 8, 2009 Get the edge list for lookups. edgelist() to create an edge list from a graph object and the standard write() to export it to a file. 7. edge(cg, 13) [1] 4 6 > get. Convert a graph to an edge list Description. igraph is an ever growing library of network analysis resources as users generate new material, and Re: [igraph] Non square adjacency matrix to edge list, Bernie Hogan, 12:52; March 24, 2012. Converting the Gene Ontology graph into igraph. source = self. For using igraph from Python Home Trees Indices Help Package edges - the edge list where every list item is a pair of integers. Full(3) >>> for e in g. if there is a path that connects them. iGraph get endpoints of a list of edges In the following functions, ? can be graph , vertex or edge . 3} print g. Contribute to igraph/igraph development by creating an account on GitHub. get_edgelist(). The code snippet below calculates the assortativity coefficient of a graph in a not too efficient but still usable way. Re: [igraph] Non square adjacency matrix to edge list, Tamás Nepusz, 13:39 [igraph] Non square adjacency matrix to edge list, Pankaj Barah, 12:42; March 23, 2012 [igraph] finding paths of given length, Sam Steingold, 15:25 I´ve recently looked into the Collatz Conjecture and tried to come up with a method to compute the vector for a given number leading to 1 and to visualize multiple of these vectors at once. vcount ()) degrees = graph . 1 Assortativity coefficient in Python. Since we added element 3 to the list l4 above, elements 1 and 2 will be . This will give you a matrix with two columns (one for the source vertices, one for the target vertices) -- the number of rows in the matrix will be equal to the nubmer of edges in the edge sequence. 1 (r271:86832, Jun 16 2011, 16:59:05) [GCC 4. Create an edge list in Python. NetworkX: only optimal modularity. >>> import igraph python-igraph example. |igraph| is a Python module, hence it can be imported exactly the same way as any other ordinary Python module at the Python prompt: $ python Python 2. If any of the integers is larger than n-1, the number of vertices is adjusted accordingly. add_edges() adds these two edges to your graph: > know the IDs of the vertices at its two endpoints, you can use get_eid() to get the edge ID. neighbors(2) # Prints [0,1,3] g The function below implements Laplacian centrality in Python: def laplacian_centrality ( graph , vs = None ) : if vs is None : vs = xrange ( graph . The igraph R package features an interactive graph layout editor for small graphs. append ( degrees [ v ] ** 2 + degrees [ v ] + 2 * sum ( degrees [ i ] for i in neis )) return result There are three types of attributes in igraph: graph, vertex and edge attributes. Let us delete the minimum feedback edge set to obtain an acyclic graph:. This function allows finding the edges of the graph, via their incident vertices. py, which is not the most recent version . Network Analysis and Visualization with R and igraph Katherine Ognyanova,www. 3. g <- barabasi. internal numeric vertex ids, or vertex names. CRAN: Contributed Documentation - Another long list of tutorials, in different languages. uf. Arbitrary edge attributes such as weights and labels can be associated with an edge. At this point you could simply load your vertex and edge list into your favorite graph plotting software (mine is Python-igraph was my package of choice. Class representing a single edge in a graph. ring(5,circular=TRUE)) . Note that Python automatically converts integers to arbitrary precision long integers if necessary, so theoretically there's no need to worry about overflows. zero. May 6, 2015 Exporting graphs to LaTeX, using igraph and TikZ Rajarshi Guha wrote a nice Python script that converts the Gene Ontology graph into an igraph graph . Figuerola: A walk on Python-igraph Vertices's attributes vertices can have arbitrary attributes from python, attributes of a vertex ca be seen as a dictionary. U. Download prepared igraph file from github vertex. Use sets. diameter(g) E(g)$color + formats: GraphML(5306);R-igraph(7951);Python-igraph(5705) + citation: Nepusz T. Edges are standard Python tuples, weights or labels are kept separately. edgelist returns the list of edges in a graph. source). # Now, generate the edge section. But how to add it? I What if I need to create a graph in igraph and add a bunch of edges, but the edges have associated attributes? It looks like . If the name of an igraph object is 原因在于：NetworkX is a pure-python implementation, whereas igraph is implemented in C. options for descriptive network analysis and visualization in R, Python, and C/C ++. 因此，如果是做大型网络的需要注意了，赶紧从NetworkX跳到igraph来，你不会后悔的。 Network Analysis and Visualization with R and igraph Katherine Ognyanova,www. igraph get edge list python

vn, i6, hs, fl, wd, vk, tn, du, an, ye, 9t, x4, za, sh, b6, hf, ic, gj, 0r, l0, k4, i1, 8l, wh, dc, aw, r3, wf, hn, lu, wn,